Distribution

Bengladesh

Environmental parameters
The country enjoys relatively stable temperatures throughout the year. In the warmest months, between January and April, the latter will oscillate between 25 ° C and 33 ° C. Rainfall is higher in the northeast.
The rainy season arrives around April and continues until October, it is hot, with temperatures reaching 31 ° C to 33 ° C. The arrival of abundant rains will raise the humidity to 85% or even 95%. The dry season which is of number to March has variable temperatures from 25 ° C to 30 ° C, there is almost no and the humidity is low.

Species present
Trimeresurus erythrurus

Source(s):

Malhotra, A., & Thorpe, R. S. (2004). A phylogeny of four mitochondrial gene regions suggests a revised taxonomy for Asian pitvipers (Trimeresurus and Ovophis). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 32(1), 83-100.

Brunei

Environmental parameters
This country, cut in two by Malaysia, has an area of 5’765 km2 enjoys a tropical climate. Temperatures are high all year round, reaching 32-32 ° C during the day and down to around 23 ° C at night. It is wetter at night. During the day, this humidity drops slightly as sea breezes blow. The months of September to January are the most rainy, although it rains regularly throughout the year. The humidity turns between 60% minimum, to have climbs to 100%.

Species present
Craspedocephalus borneensis, Parias sumatranus, Popeia sabahi.

Source(s):

Das, I., & Charles, J. K. (2015). Venomous Snakes and Envenomation in Brunei. Clinical Toxinology in Asia Pacific and Africa, 103-114.

Cambodge

Environmental parameters
Located in South-East Asia with an area of 181’035km2, Cambodia is located at low altitude. The country is under a tropical climate with alternating season. The rainy season runs from May to November with a humidity rate around 90%. The drought is present the rest of the year, from December to April with an average humidity of 50%. Temperatures range from 10 to 38-40 ° C.

Species present
Trimeresurus albolabris, Trimeresurus cardamomensis, Trimeresurus macrops, Trimeresurus rubeus, Viridovipera vogeli

Source(s):

Stuart, B. L., Sok, K., & Neang, T. (2006). A collection of amphibians and reptiles from hilly eastern Cambodia. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, 54(1), 129-155.

Malhotra, A., Thorpe, R. S., & Stuart, B. L. (2011). Two new species of pitviper of the genus Cryptelytrops Cope 1860 (Squamata: Viperidae: Crotalinae) from Southeast Asia. Zootaxa, 2757(1), 1-23.

China

Environmental parameters
With 9,596,961 square kilometers, China is the second largest country in the world. With such an area, it is natural to be able to distinguish many types of climate. We thus find ourselves in the north, a dry climate with harsh winters; in the center, a more temperate climate; to the south, a humid subtropical climate, marked by the monsoon. The latter increases the humidity rate to around 80%.

Species present
Trimeresurus albolabris, Viridovipera gumprechti, Craspedocephalus gramineus, Viridovipera medoensis, Popeia popeiorum, Sinovipera sichuanensis, Viridovipera stejnegeri, Himalayophis tibetanus, Viridovipera yunnanensis

Source(s):

Shek, K. C., Tsui, K. L., Lam, K. K., Crow, P., Ng, K. H., Ades, G., … & Lam, T. S. (2009). Oral bacterial flora of the Chinese cobra (Naja atra) and bamboo pit viper (Trimeresurus albolabris) in Hong Kong SAR, China. Hong Kong Med J, 15(3), 183-90.

Malhotra, A., & Thorpe, R. S. (2004). A phylogeny of four mitochondrial gene regions suggests a revised taxonomy for Asian pitvipers (Trimeresurus and Ovophis). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 32(1), 83-100.

Wei, J. F., Wei, Q., Lu, Q. M., Tai, H., Jin, Y., Wang, W. Y., & Xiong, Y. L. (2003). Purification, characterization and biological activity of an L-amino acid oxidase from Trimeresurus mucrosquamatus venom. ACTA BIOCHIMICA ET BIOPHYSICA SINICA-CHINESE EDITION-, 35(3), 219-228.

Guo, P., & Wang, Y. Z. (2011). A new genus and species of cryptic Asian green pitviper (Serpentes: Viperidae: Crotalinae) from southwest China. Zootaxa, 2918, 1-14.

Himalaya

Environmental parameters
The Himalayan range is a mountain range 2’400km long and about 400m wide. It separates the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan plateau in southern Asia. They shelter the highest mountains, more than 8000m of altitude, including Mount Everest (8’848m). The forests stop at around 3’900m and the snow starts at around 5000m altitude. The chain covers most of Nepal, the far north of Nyamnar and a small part of southeastern Tibet. The Himalayas are a natural barrier especially on the climates of the Indian sub-continent and the Tibetan plateau, the South East Asia, for equal altitudes, warmer because of the dry and icy winds which are found stuck on the slope North. Winds from the west, however, are not especially blocked, which is why there are decreases in temperatures in north-east India and Bangladesh.

Species present
Himalayophis tibetanus

India

Environmental parameters
Border with Pakistan, China, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and Nyamnar, India, with an area of ​​3,287,263 km2, is the seventh largest country in the world and occupies most of the world. -continent Indian. Due to its size, India has various climatic regions, but is generally a country with mild winters and hot summers. The north is considered a tropical zone marked by monsoons. In view of its size, however, one must take into account the classifications of Köppen and take into account the presence of marked microclimates. These areas include the humid subtropical climate, the monsoon, the tropical savannah climate, the semi-arid steppe climate, the desert climate, and the alpine climate.

The four seasons officially recognized by the meteorological service of the country are as follows:

• Winter, from January to March. The coldest months of the year are December and January, the average temperature is around 10 to 15 ° C in the north-west, but the average increases in the direction of the equator to 20 to 25 ° C in the South East.

• Summer or premousson lasts from March to June (or from April to July in northwestern India). In the west and south of the country, the hottest month is April while it may be for the northern regions. Average temperatures are around 32 to 40 ° C inside the country.

• The monsoon or the rainy season lasts from June to September. The season is marked by southwestern rains that fall from late May or early June. The monsoon rains begin to stop in northern India in early October.

• Post-monsoon or monsoon withdrawal lasts from October to December. It is southern India that usually receives the most precipitation. In northwestern India, the months of October and November are generally cloudless.

The humidity is always very high.

Species present
Trimeresurus albolabris, Trimeresurus andersonii, Trimeresurus cantori, Trimeresurus erythrurus, Craspedocephalus gramineus, Trimeresurus labialis, Viridovipera gumprechti, Peltopelor macrolepis, Craspedocephalus malabaricus, Viridovipera medoensis, Popeia popeiorum, Trimeresurus septentrionalis, Viridovipera stejnegeri, Craspedocephalus strigatus

Source(s):

Ganesh, S. R., Chadramouli, S. R., Sreekar, R., & Shankar, P. G. (2013). Reptiles of the central Western Ghats, India—a reappraisal and revised checklist, with emphasis on the Agumbe Plateau. Russian Journal of Herpetology, 20(3), 181-189.

Malhotra, A., & Thorpe, R. S. (2004). A phylogeny of four mitochondrial gene regions suggests a revised taxonomy for Asian pitvipers (Trimeresurus and Ovophis). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 32(1), 83-100.

https://indiansnakes.org/

Indonesia

Environmental parameters
Indonesia is a transcontinental country located in Southeast Asia and is the largest archipelago in the world with 17’508 islands. The climate is equatorial, alternating wet season and dry season. There is very little variation in temperature or even rainfall. The mountainous regions, including Sumatra, West Java, Klimantan, Sulawesi and Papua, are heavily watered. It is wet all year round, with more than 80% hygrometry. The average temperature varies between 26 and 30 ° C. Forest fires are causing dry burning over Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore. The humidity is around 75%.

Species present
Trimeresurus albolabris, Craspedocephalus andalasensis, Craspedocephalus borneensis, Craspedocephalus brongersmai, Trimeresurus fasciatus, Parias hageni, Trimeresurus insularis, Parias malcolmi, Craspedocephalus puniceus, Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus, Popeia sabahi, Parias sumatranus

Source(s):

Vogel, G., David, P., & Sidik, I. (1822). On Trimeresurus sumatranus.

de Lang, R., & Vogel, G. (2006). The snakes of Sulawesi. In Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Societas Europaea Herpetologica. pp (Vol. 35, p. 38).

Teynie, A., David, P., & Ohler, A. (2010). Note on a collection of Amphibians and Reptiles from Western Sumatra (Indonesia), with the description of a new species of the genus Bufo. Zootaxa, 2416(1), 1-43.

Malhotra, A., & Thorpe, R. S. (2004). A phylogeny of four mitochondrial gene regions suggests a revised taxonomy for Asian pitvipers (Trimeresurus and Ovophis). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 32(1), 83-100.

Japan

Environmental parameters
The state of Japan is an island nation of East Asia with an area of ​​377’915 km2. The country forms an archipelago of about 6’852 islands of more than 100m2. Like any great country, Japan has various climates. The island of Hokkaido and northern Honshü have a mild continental climate with mild summers and cold, snowy winters. To the east and west-central of Honshu, the climate is humid subtropical characterized by relatively mild winters with little snow and hot, humid summers with a rainy season from early June to mid-July. The climate of Fukuoka (Hakata), on the island of Kyushu is relatively temperate with autumns and mild winters. Summer is hard, though. It is suffocating, very rainy from late May to late September and combines high humidity and high temperatures. The islands of Ryuku in the extreme south are of quasi-tropical type, with winter temperatures higher than 16 ° C, very similar with Taiwan.

The humidity, in summer, is around 70% to 80%.

Species present

Source(s):

Chijiwa, T., Deshimaru, M., Nobuhisa, I., Nakai, M., Ogawa, T., Naoko, O. D. A., … & Motonori, O. H. N. O. (2000). Regional evolution of venom-gland phospholipase A2 isoenzymes of Trimeresurus flavoviridis snakes in the southwestern islands of Japan. Biochemical Journal, 347(2), 491-499.

Laos

Environmental parameters
Laos is a Southeast Asian country of 236’800km2 surrounded by Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam and China. It does not have access to the sea. It is a tropical climate characterized by monsoons. There are two seasons: the dry, stretching from October to April and the rainy season from May to September. Between December and January it is mild, between 15 and 20 ° C while from March to April it is rather hot with 30 ° C. Moisture always runs between 90% and 100%.

Species present
Trimeresurus albolabris, Viridovipera gumprechti, Trimeresurus macrops, Popeia popeiorum, Viridovipera stejnegeri, Viridovipera vogeli, Viridovipera truongsonensis

Source(s):

PiQueT, A., LOTTier, A., & DAviD, P. (2014). Amphibiens et Reptiles du Laos: nouvelles données nationales et provinciales. Bull. Soc. Herp. Fr, 151, 21-52.

TEYNIE, A., & DAVID, P. (2013). Amphibiens et reptiles des formations karstiques du Laos. Bulletin de la Société herpétologique de France, (148), 451-490.

Blessmann, J., Khonesavanh, C., Outhaithit, P., Manichanh, S., Somphanthabansouk, K., & Siboualipha, P. (2010). Venomous Snake Bites in Lao PDR: A retrospective study of 21 snakebite victims in a provincial hospital. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, 41(1), 195.

Malhotra, A., & Thorpe, R. S. (2004). A phylogeny of four mitochondrial gene regions suggests a revised taxonomy for Asian pitvipers (Trimeresurus and Ovophis). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 32(1), 83-100.

Malaysia

Environmental parameters
Southeast Asian country, Malaysia has an area of 329’750km2. Near the equator, Malaysia has a very humid equatorial climate and a high temperature year-round at 26-27 ° C. The weather is rainy with annual precipitation averaging 2’500mm. The humidity can go down very low, to 40%, but in a general way, especially in the forest, it will be between 70% and 100% with an average at 80%.

Species present
Trimeresurus albolabris, Craspedocephalus borneensis, Popeia bunianus, Popeia fucatus, Parias hageni, Parias malcolmi, Popeia nebularis, Popeia popeiorum, Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus, Popeia sabahi, Parias sumatranus, Craspedocephalus wiroti

Myanmar

Environmental parameters
Located in mainland Southeast Asia, Myanmar, formerly Burma, borders Bangladesh, China, India, Laos and Thailand. The country has an area of 676’578 km2. The climate is tropical. Between May and October, the season is wet and prone to rain with temperature variations between 25 ° C and 30 ° C. From November to February, it is a cool period with temperatures ranging from 20 ° C to 24 ° C, Just like November and Frévier, March and April are dry months, but temperatures increase considerably, between 30 ° C and 35 ° C ° C. The average humidity rate in the country is 70%.

Species present
Trimeresurus albolabris, Trimeresurus erythrurus, Popeia fucatus, Viridovipera gumprechti, Viridovipera medoensis, Popeia popeiorum,Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus, Himalayophis tibetanus

Source(s):

Malhotra, A., & Thorpe, R. S. (2004). A phylogeny of four mitochondrial gene regions suggests a revised taxonomy for Asian pitvipers (Trimeresurus and Ovophis). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 32(1), 83-100.

Nepal

Environmental parameters
Nepal is a landlocked country in the Himalayas, China to the north and India to the south, west and east. The country, with an area of 147’179km2 has a natural border, Mount Everest, with Tibet. It has, through the aforementioned mountain, very distinct climatic variations: in the south the climate is of tropical type with humid summers and dry winters. The monsoon, caused by the mountain, extends from June to July. Despite the latter, one can find semi-desert regions. In the heights, it can be very cold with -20 ° C, but in full and in good season, temperatures can be around 30 ° C. The tropical and subtropical climate is below 1200m. The humidity is regularly at 100%.

Species present
Trimeresurus albolabris, Trimeresurus erythrurus, Popeia popeiorum, Trimeresurus septentrionalis, Viridovipera stejnegeri, Himalayophis tibetanus, Viridovipera yunnanensis

Source(s):

Sharma, S. K., Pandey, D. P., Shah, K. B., Tillack, F., Chappuis, F., Thapa, C. L., … & Kuch, U. (2013). Venomous Snakes of Nepal. A photographic Guide. 1stedn, Feb.

Malhotra, A., & Thorpe, R. S. (2004). A phylogeny of four mitochondrial gene regions suggests a revised taxonomy for Asian pitvipers (Trimeresurus and Ovophis). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 32(1), 83-100.

Philippines

Environmental parameters
The Philippines, located in Southeast Asia, is composed of an archipelago of 7’107m2 for an area of 300’400km2. Located in the tropical zone, the country type is particularly humid. The west has a dry season and monsoons in summer with a hot and humid climate. temperatures can range from 28 ° C to 39 ° C but in the rainy season, from May to October. these temperatures fall between 25 ° C and 31 ° C. The average is 29 ° C. The east of the country is rainy practically year-round. The humidity varies between 80% and 100%.

Species present
Craspedocephalus boreensis, Parias flavomaculatus, Parias schultzei, Parias mcgregori,  Popeia popoeiorum, Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus, Parias sumatranus, Parias malcomi

Source(s):

Malhotra, A., & Thorpe, R. S. (2004). A phylogeny of four mitochondrial gene regions suggests a revised taxonomy for Asian pitvipers (Trimeresurus and Ovophis). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 32(1), 83-100.

Devan-Song, A., & Brown, R. M. (2012). Amphibians and reptiles of Luzon Island, Philippines, VI: the herpetofauna of the Subic Bay Area. Asian Herpetological Research, 3(1), 1-20.

Sri Lanka

Environmental parameters
The island state of the Indian subcontinent in south-east India, Sri Lanka has an area of 65’610km2. The country lives mainly 2 seasons: the dry one and the monsoon. The western, central and northern regions are watered by the monsoon from May to August. The dry season runs from December to March in the south and from May to September in the east. The temperature varies between 27 ° C and 33 ° C. The humidity varies between 60% and 90% for the monsoon.

Species present
Craspedocephalus trigonocephalus.

Source(s):

Malhotra, A., & Thorpe, R. S. (2004). A phylogeny of four mitochondrial gene regions suggests a revised taxonomy for Asian pitvipers (Trimeresurus and Ovophis). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 32(1), 83-100.

Taiwan

Environmental parameters
The sovereign state of Taiwan in Southeast Asia is a country of 36’191km2 and enjoys a warm and rainy annual climate. The monsoon stretches from April to September and temperatures can rise between 30 ° C and 35 ° C. From October to March, the north remains rainy, but the south becomes drier. Humidity oscillates between 70% and 90%.

Species present
Trimeresurus gracilis,  Viridovipera stejnegeri

Source(s):

Malhotra, A., & Thorpe, R. S. (2004). A phylogeny of four mitochondrial gene regions suggests a revised taxonomy for Asian pitvipers (Trimeresurus and Ovophis). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 32(1), 83-100.

Thailand

Environmental parameters
With an area of 514’000km2, the Kingdom of Thailand is the 51st largest country in the world. Bordering Myanmar from west to north-west, south to Malaysia, east to Cambodia and north-east through Laos, Thailand is part of the Indochinese Peninsula to the isthmus of kra which marks the transition with the Malay Peninsula.

The ancient Kingdom of Siam has a monsoon climate of which there are 3 seasons: a dry that extends from December to April, a monsoon from the end of May to November (which does not exclude a beautiful day) and finally, only north, a cold season. The dry season is shorter in the south because of its proximity to the sea. The average temperature varies between 19 ° C and 38 ° C. The hygrometric gradient varies between 60% and 90%.

Species present
Trimeresurus albolabris, Trimeresurus cardamomensis, Trimeresurus erythrurus, Popeia fucatus, Viridovipera gumprechti, Parias hageni, Trimeresurus kanburiensis, Trimeresurus macrops, Popeia nebularis, Popeia phuketensis, Popeia popeiorum, Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus, Parias sumatranus, Trimeresurus venustus, Viridovipera vogeli, Craspedocephalus wiroti

Source(s):

Malhotra, A., & Thorpe, R. S. (2004). A phylogeny of four mitochondrial gene regions suggests a revised taxonomy for Asian pitvipers (Trimeresurus and Ovophis). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 32(1), 83-100.

Timor oriental

Environmental parameters
A young country that achieved independence in 2002, East Timor is a Southeast Asian country with a tropical climate with a dry season from July to November and a rainy season from December to March. The average temperature is 23 ° C. The country has a total area of 15’410km2. The humidity, relatively stable is 80%.

Species present
Trimeresurus insularis

Source(s):

Malhotra, A., & Thorpe, R. S. (2004). A phylogeny of four mitochondrial gene regions suggests a revised taxonomy for Asian pitvipers (Trimeresurus and Ovophis). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 32(1), 83-100.

Tibet

Environmental parameters
Tibet is a plateau region of the northern Himalayas with an average altitude of 4’900m and an area of approximately 1’221’600km2. The country has a cold and dry continental climate but an annual temperature higher than that of the atmosphere usually found at such a latitude. This effect causes a large north-south pressure that participates in the monsoon phenomenon. Thermal variations are sudden and several tens of degrees. Although it hardly ever snows, temperatures can easily drop below 0 ° C. Spring is from March to May and average temperatures are around 16 ° C. Summer is between June and August. Autumn stretches from September to November and can reach -4 ° C. Winter is from December to February and temperatures drop to -9 ° C. The humidity varies between 4% and 30% maximum.

Species present
Viridovipera medoensis, Himalayophis tibetanus

Source(s):

Malhotra, A., & Thorpe, R. S. (2004). A phylogeny of four mitochondrial gene regions suggests a revised taxonomy for Asian pitvipers (Trimeresurus and Ovophis). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 32(1), 83-100.

Vietnam

Environmental parameters
Vietnam is a Southeast Asian country located east of the Indo-Chinese peninsula. With an area of 330’967km2, the country is bordering China, Laos, Cambodia, the Gulf of Thailand and the South China Sea.

The country has 2 climates: tropical in the south and subtropical in the north, marked by monsoons. Depending on the region, the climate drops to 40%, but is generally between 50% and 90%.

Species present
Trimeresurus albolabris, Viridovipera gumprechti, Trimeresurus honsonensis, Trimeresurus macrops, Trimeresurus rubeus, Viridovipera stejnegeri, Viridovipera truongsonensis, Viridovipera vogeli

Source(s):

Malhotra, A., & Thorpe, R. S. (2004). A phylogeny of four mitochondrial gene regions suggests a revised taxonomy for Asian pitvipers (Trimeresurus and Ovophis). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 32(1), 83-100.

DAVID, P., VOGEL, G., PAUWELS, O. S., & VIDAL, N. (2017). Description of a new species of the genus Trimeresurus from Thailand, related to Trimeresurus stejnegeri Schmidt, 1925 (Serpentes, Crotalidae). Tropical Natural History, 2(1), 5-19.

– Partager l’article –